H.R. 5752: A bill to require that U.S. passports be manufactured in the U.S.  
  NFFE Local 1998 endorses H.R. 5752 
On May 29, 2008, the National Federation of Federal Employees (NFFE), including Local 1998, issued a press release announcing that the Union officially endorsed a bill introduced on April 9, 2008 by Congressman Bill Sali (R-Id) to require that passports be produced in the United States.  The bill, numbered H.R. 5752, has 22 cosponsors and was referred to the House Foreign Affairs Committee.  The International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAMAW) included an endorsement of H.R. 5752 in the June 3, 2008 edition of it's "i-mail" - an email update regularly sent to hundreds of thousands of IAMAW members.  The IAMAW and NFFE issued an "Action Alert" calling on members to contact their Congressperson to support H.R. 5752 on June 10, 2008.  The IAMAW included the action alert in its i-mail message emailed to thousands of members, while NFFE included the action alert on its website, along with a position paper.  To send a message to your Congressperson in support of H.R. 5752, click on this link: "End Passport Outsourcing" Action Alert.  

H.R. 5752 was introduced in the wake of news stories published March 26, 27, and 28, 2008 by the Washington Times that the production of passport book covers (included the new electronic chip) had been outsourced to foreign companies and manufactured overseas, including a site in Thailand.  

NFFE calls on Congress to pass H.R. 5752 or similar legislation that would prohibit the production and manufacturing of blank United States passports or their components outside of the U.S.  The Department of State and the Government Printing Office should require that U.S. passports be produced domestically.  NFFE Local 1998 urges all Union members and bargaining unit employees, and our supporters and friends, to write, email, or call their Congressional representatives to support this important bill (see below) The U.S. passport should be stamped, "Made in the U.S.A".  

The shocking news that the manufacturing of the passport book covers had been outsourced to foreign companies was met with widespread consternation and outrage in editorial pages and blogs.  A March 28, 2008 Washington Times Editorial stated that the "annals of incompetent federal empire-building have a new entry: the Government Printing Office's e-Passport program".  The Times called this a "disastrous, almost incomprehensible failure" in passport security, noting that "[t]he assembler and patent-holder, Netherlands-based Smartrac Technology Ltd., 'divulged in ... October 2007 ... that China had stolen its patented chip technology for e-passport chips'."  The Times argued that "[b]lank passports are a free ticket to entry into the United States.  They must not fall into the hands of terrorists or foreign agents".  

NFFE Local 1998 agrees that the decision to outsource the production of passport book covers and chips to foreign countries threatens our national security.  The employees of Passport Services that the Union represents strive to ensure that correct decision-making is applied to passport application adjudication and are dedicated to protecting the integrity of the passport issuance process.  They play an important role in protecting our nation's borders.  When the U.S. passport book itself is vulnerable to being counterfeited or its electronic information accessed, that undermines and negates the efforts that the employees make in the steps leading up to its issuance.  For the employees that we represent, all of their hard work in ensuring proper passport issuance and preventing passport fraud would be rendered meaningless if criminals, terrorists, and foreign espionage agents could simply make their own U.S. passports, or use proprietary information to successfully alter or access information from a valid U.S. passport.  

Photo of the United States passport with e-chip.  Of course, the actual passport does not state "Made in Thailand" on the cover - that (and the red "X") was added for editorial purposes.  





NFFE Local 1998 is a federal employees Union that represents the nearly 1400 bargaining unit members of Passport Services, which is part of the Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs.  NFFE Local 1998 is one of nearly 200 locals that make up the National Federation of Federal Employees, which is affiliated with the International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers (IAMAW).  The employees that we represent have the responsibility of adjudicating the millions of passport applications submitted each year - making the critical decision on whether an applicant has met the burden of proof in order to receive a U.S. passport.  Disclaimer: the views expressed on this webpage are those of the Union and not the federal government.  


 Contacting Congress to support H.R. 5752 
Send a message in support of H.R. 5752

The IAMAW and NFFE have made it easy to take action in support of H.R. 5752.  All you have to do is click on the link below, enter your name, mailing address, and email address, and click "send" and the message supporting H.R. 5752 will be automatically sent to your United States Representative:  

"End Passport Outsourcing" Action Alert




...or, write your own letter

You can also compose your own letter to your Representative and/or Senators.  It is recommended that you write a letter in addition to, not instead of, sending the email.  However, the mailed letter will likely have more of an impact than the email.  

Find your Senator/Representative:  

Enter your zip code in the box to the right or click on this link to find your Representative and Senators, including their mailing address and email: http://capwiz.com/iamaw/dbq/officials/

How to address a member of Congress:  

Addressing your Representative: 

The Honorable (full name)
__(Rm.#)__(name of) House Office Building
United States House of Representatives
Washington, DC 20515 

Addressing your Senator(s): 

The Honorable (full name) 
__(Rm.#)__(name of) Senate Office Building
United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510 

Question: As a federal employee, am I allowed to contact Congress to support legislation?  Answer: YES

Question: Doesn't the Hatch Act forbid me from contacting Congress?  Answer: NO

The United States Office of Special Counsel (OSC) answered these questions definitively and specifically for Passport Services on January 24, 2007.  The OSC is "an independent federal investigative and prosecutorial agency" which has, among other responsibilities, the authority to issue advisory opinions that enable "individuals to determine whether contemplated political activities are permitted under the [Hatch] Act" (quoting from the OSC website).  The OSC issued an advisory legal opinion, requested by NFFE Local 1998, regarding whether employees of Passport Services are allowed under the Hatch Act to write letters to Congress expressing concerns about the integrity of the passport issuance process.  (See: complete advisory legal opinion)

The OSC summed up the request as follows: "Department of State employees would like to consider writing letters or personally visiting members of Congress to express your concerns about the passport issuance process".  In the opinion, the OSC stated that the "Hatch Act does not prohibit you or other Department of State employees from contacting members of Congress".  The OSC also explained that the law (5 U.S.C. 7211) specifically authorizes employees to contact Congress: "The right of employees, individually or collectively, to petition Congress or a member of Congress, or furnish information to either House of Congress, or to a committee or Member thereof, may not be interfered or denied."  

Tips for writing your Congressperson

Here are some tips for writing a letter to your Congressperson: 


  • Refer specifically to H.R. 5752 (and the issue of outsourcing passport book and chip production to Thailand) in your opening paragraph.  
  • Be courteous and succinct.  Use examples to support your points. 
  • Only address H.R. 5752 in your letter.  You can address other issues in separate correspondence. 
  • Directly ask the Congressperson to support or even to co-sponsor H.R. 5752.  
  • Try to keep the letter to ONE PAGE.  
  • If applicable, do state that you are a member of IAMAW FD1 NFFE Local 1998, which represents the employees of Passport Services.  
  • If applicable, do state that you are a constituent and a voter.  
  • Consider hand-writing the letter.  
  • DO NOT use government postage to send the letter. 
  • DO NOT write the letter on work time.  
  • DO NOT write in any manner which would cause the reader to think that you are writing in your capacity as a Passport Services/State Department employee. 
  • DO NOT write as a government official or use government letterhead - write your letter as a U.S. citizen and voter.  
  • DO NOT use profanity. 
  • DO NOT make this issue personal. While it is hard to comprehend why anyone would authorize U.S. passport components to be outsourced to foreign companies, it is not clear at this time which individual(s) are responsible for this bad decision.  DO NOT assume that any particular manager is to blame.  
Visiting your Congressperson

Prior to visiting your Congressperson in order to ask him/her to support H.R. 5752, it is recommended that you coordinate with your NFFE Local 1998 Union representative first.   

 What others have to say about manufacturing U.S. passport book covers and the e-chip overseas  
Below are selected quotes and opinions from a variety of sources regarding the manufacturing of the U.S. passport book and e-chip: 

Members of Congress

Rep Bill Sali (R-ID), sponsor of H.R. 5752: “Our government should set the highest level of standards to protect the privacy and security of our fellow citizens."  “Currently, key components of American passports manufactured and assembled for United States citizens are sent outside our nation.  Especially troubling is the fact that the inlaying of the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) antennae occurs in Thailand.  Additionally, there is evidence that suggests Chinese efforts to infiltrate Thai technology firms.  This is not acceptable.  We need to manufacture American passports in America – period.”  "Allowing American passports to be manufactured and assembled overseas raises serious national security concerns."  “Outsourcing work that has the potential to jeopardize the privacy and security of American citizens must be avoided. Border security and national security are important to the people I represent. Outsourcing the production of our passports runs counter to the Idahoan definition of common sense.” (April 11, 2008

Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-CA, ranking member of the House Armed Services Committee: "The foreign production of our passports presents significant security concerns, particularly when considering that this form of identification is now a requirement for entry into the U.S.".  (April 11, 2008

Rep. Bennie Thompson (D-MS), chairman of the House Homeland Security Committee: "It is just plain irresponsible to jeopardize the gold standard in document security by outsourcing production when U.S. companies ought to be able to do the same work here."  "Questions alone about the production and chain of custody of blank U.S. passports can send shock waves through our homeland security infrastructure." "The Committee on Homeland Security will use all of the tools available to determine if American technologies are being overlooked and what implications there might be for other border security documents and technologies."  (March 27, 2008

Rep. John Dingell (D-MI) chairman of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce: "If true, these allegations raised in today's press reports are extremely serious not only to the integrity of our e-Passport program, but also to our national security". (March 27, 2008) "I am not only troubled that there may be serious security concerns with the new passport production system, but also that GPO officials may have been profiting from producing them". (March 26, 2008

Rep. Bart Stupak (D-MI): "Given all of the personal information contained in an e-passport, it is essential that the entire production chain be secure and free from potential tampering". (March 27, 2008

Rep. Sue Myrick: "We have got to stop selling our country!"  "The US Government has once again shown they have no common sense.  They think that an American company like Microsoft can't produce a security chip and an e-passport?  Apparently the government doesn't value our national security very much when we are willing to sell it to save a few bucks!  I ask all businesses in our area to contact me personally if they have the technology and ability to produce security chips which can be used in US e-passports.  I have already spoken to several companies about passport technology and I know we can produce it in America, which would provide safeguards against security breaches and identity theft."  (April 2, 2008

Security Experts

From the March 26, 2008 Washington Times story, "Outsourced passports netting govt. profits, risking national security": 

"The most dangerous passports, and the ones we have to be most concerned about, are stolen blank passports," said Ronald K. Noble, secretary general of Interpol, the Lyon, France-based international police organization. "They are the most dangerous because they are the most difficult to detect."

Mr. Noble said no counterfeit e-passports have been found yet, but the potential is "a great weakness and an area that world governments are not paying enough attention to."

Lukas Grunwald, a computer security expert, said U.S. e-passports, like their European counterparts, are vulnerable to copying and that their shipment overseas during production increases the risks. "You need a blank passport and a chip and once you do that, you can do anything, you can make a fake passport, you can change the data," he said.


Michelle Van Cleave, a former National Counterintelligence Executive, said outsourcing passport work and components creates new security vulnerabilities, not just for passports.

"Protecting the acquisition stream is a serious concern in many sensitive areas of government activity, but the process for assessing the risk to national security is at best loose and in some cases missing altogether," she told The Times.

"A U.S. passport has the full faith and credit of the U.S. government behind the citizenship and identity of the bearer," she said.

"What foreign intelligence service or international terrorist group wouldn't like to be able to masquerade as U.S. citizens? It would be a profound liability for U.S. intelligence and law enforcement if we lost confidence in the integrity of our passports."

From a March 26, 2008 CNN "Situation Room" report

VERJEE (voice-over): Your passport used to be made in America, but because of 9/11, all passports now must be fitted with electronic chips -- harder for terrorists to fake. Turns out, though, that in trying to make passports more secure, the U.S. is outsourcing the job to foreign companies.

MICHAEL CUTLER, CENTER FOR IMMIGRATION STUDIES: It's another reason not to sleep tonight. 

VERJEE: Security experts fear blank chips could be stolen or tampered with.

CUTLER: If bad guys got a hold of those blanks and then properly filled them out and processed them and you had corruption involved, then what you really have are the keys to the kingdom sitting in a foreign country.

CNN Commentator Lou Dobbs: http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0803/26/ldt.01.html (March 26, 2008) 

New evidence tonight that our government is putting expediency ahead of national security once again. The State Department is outsourcing the manufacturer of American passports to foreign countries and at the same time doing little or nothing to enforce visas into the United States . It always seems to get just better and better.

Louise Schiavone has our report.


LOUISE SCHIAVONE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): New findings about passport security breaches and visa over stakes are raising red flags about national security. "The Washington Times" reports batches of blank passports have been shipped to several countries, including the Netherlands, Israel and Germany and then on to Thailand for processing.

MICHAEL CUTLER, FORMER INS AGENT: Would they do this with money that's being minted in the United States or being printed in the United States? The passport is as vital a document as is our currency. This should never been outsourced to any foreign company. This should be done by the American government.

SCHIAVONE: The outsourcing decision was made by the Government Printing Office, which the report states reaped huge profits in over charges to the State Department. GPO says it couldn't find a U.S.company capable of assembling the latest state of the art passports and that perceived profits were due to accounting procedures and GPO says, "The materials are moved via a secured transportation means including armored vehicles."



SCHIAVONE: But Lou on the matter of overseas passport assembly the State Department insists there's nothing to fear. However Congress is asking for a full accounting of what passport components are made overseas and whether that could threaten national security -- Lou.

DOBBS: Well if there's nothing to fear, why should there be any concern about the fact that one of the principal firms involved in this had its technology stolen by the communist Chinese?

SCHIAVONE: That's right. SmartTrac in Thailand pled a case at The Haguelast year that the Chinese had in fact stolen its patented technology. So this is an issue that has lots of potential for violating national security. 

DOBBS: You know the question becomes, if the State Department is outsourcing visas and if the State Department is outsourcing passports, if the State Department can't get much of anything else done around the world, I mean why do we have a State Department? Even their briefings by their spokesmen are boring nonevents with very little information?

SCHIAVONE: We asked this question, Lou, and you know what our answer is -- no comment.

NBC Tonight Show Comedian Jay Leno

March 27, 2008:

The White House is now outsourcing our passports overseas. Foreign companies are making our passports. See, this is smart thinking. Now, when we deport illegals, they can go home, make their own passports, and come back.

March 28, 2008:

The White House is now outsourcing the manufacturing of our passports overseas. See, this is how a global economy works. See, when an illegal immigrant from Mexico living in LA and working in a Japanese-owned company wants to go home to visit his relatives, he uses a passport made in Thailand that he gets by calling a customer service number in India. You see how it works? This could be the thing that makes Lou Dobbs’ head explode.

Pittsburgh Tribune-Review Editorial: http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/opinion/archive/s_559650.html (March 31, 2008 )  

The Government Printing Office is profiting by outsourcing homeland security.

Executives of the federal government's official printer have been reaping windfall profits by overcharging for U.S.electronic passports and then rewarding themselves with bonuses and globe-trotting junkets, according to The Washington Times.

The agency has made more than $100 million by overcharging the State Department for blank passports -- even though the law requires the agency only to break even.

The printing office uses companies from Europe to Asia , including one in the Netherlands with a plant in Thailand. That company claimed in 2007 that China had stolen its patented technology to manufacture this republic's passports

The GPO Inspector General had warned last year about "significant" deficiencies regarding the manufacturing of blank passports, security of components and internal controls.

The agency responded that "monetary constraints" prevented it from improving security. This, while executives jetted to exotic destinations such as Hawaii and Hamburg, Paris and Tokyo -- and Las Vegasand Atlantic City .

The markups, outsourcing and shameless squandering must end now.

Congress must conduct a thorough investigation and replace those responsible for this graphic example of incompetence before terrorists give new meaning to "pass-through costs."

Blogs and Letters to the Editor

March 27, 2008 Blog posts on www.ronpaulforums.com

“Now every terrorist in the world may have a fake US passport with the RFID chip.”  

“What is really amazing is that we outsource a secure document to the counterfeit capitol of the world, Thailand and Southeast Asia.  We are asking for trouble there.”  

“This is more than just an accounting oversight. It's a national security nightmare. Economy tanking? Unemployment skyrocketing? I got it-- let's ship government contracts to Thailand!” 

“So let me see if I understand this correctly.  The United States Department of Homeland Security is worried terrorists will come into our country so they employ a foreign entity to build the security key used to keep this from happening.  That is tantamount to the farmer giving the fox the key to the hen house so he can make a copy to give back to the farmer. ”

March 27, 2008 Letter to the Editor, "Risky GPO Business": "This is another outrageous example of how not doing essential government work in-house, with government employees, or at least in the United States and employing Americans, imperils our national security. When will we ever learn that some jobs are inherently governmental and should be done by government employees?".  

March 26, 2008 Blog posts on www.freerepublic.com

"Big Government and Big Business have outsourced everything, even national security. The only thing left to outsource is the nation’s borders."  

"Outsource it to China. We can trust the commies."  

"If we cannot manufacture a passport in this country, we just as well wave the white flag and surrender."  


"'Unbelievable.'  My thoughts as well. I just applied for the Passport card. Glad to hear the government is providing (NOT) security for my privacy and documents."  

"How stupid! Why don’t we just contract out our armies?"  

"Obviously, the bigger factor is that if the security chips are being made overseas, how can we ever trust the system? Sometimes you just have to laugh."  

March 27, 2008 Story on www.dailykos.com

"Your RFID-Chipped Passport Is Made In Thailand and Chila 'Stole" the Chip Tech": "... the bad idea of having RFID chips in our American passports just got worse."  "The ... administration deliberately compromised the security of American citizens abroad by out-sourcing the production of the already dubious "secure" RFID chipped passports."  "Your passport has traveled from the Netherlands to Thailand to the United States before you even leave the country. This is what the U.S. State Department advises about Thailand to Americans traveling to that country:

The State Department is concerned that there is an increased risk of terrorism in Southeast Asia, including in Thailand... They should remain vigilant with regard to their personal security and avoid crowds and demonstrations...

In September 2006 a military group calling itself the Council for National Security (CNS) seized control of the Thai government and declared martial law... The Department of State advises all American citizens residing in or traveling to Bangkok to continue to monitor events closely...

The far south of Thailand has been experiencing almost daily incidents of criminally and politically motivated violence, including incidents attributed to armed local separatist/extremist groups...

That's just a brief excerpt from the thirteen paragraphs cautioning Americans about their security in Thailand. Just earlier this month, the international arms dealer, Viktor Bout, the Russian 'Merchant of Death' was captured in Thailand. Plus as recently as 2002, Thailand has been questioned as a safe haven for al Qaeda and today the Thai government is battling a 'deadly insurgency in its predominantly-Muslim southern provinces.' Thailand is hardly a stable and secure place to manufacture U.S. passports and the manufacturing company agrees:

The Netherlands-based company that assembles the U.S. e-passport covers in Thailand, Smartrac Technology Ltd., warned in its latest annual report that, in a worst-case scenario, social unrest in Thailand could lead to a halt in production.

Smartrac divulged in an October 2007 court filing in The Hague that China had stolen its patented technology for e-passport chips, raising additional questions about the security of America's e-passports."

Blog posts after the www.dailykos.com story: 

"The ... administration does not care about American national security."  

"And, will we ever be able to get decent, non-compromised, passports again?  Made in the USA passports?"  

"I must say, in the Theatre of the Absurd, this story takes the cake. And that's what we're living, every day a new absurdity."  

"Aren't we supposed to represent freedom and opportunity? Isn't outsourcing our Passport manufacturing bad as much because of sweat shop conditions?"  

March 26, 2008 Blog posts on www.drudge.com

"Doctor, you have got to be s**tting me."  

"I overheard people talking about this at work yesterday.  I thought they were joking.  What's next, are we going to let China print our money for us?"  

April 25, 2008 Letter to the Editor of The Free Lance-Star: "We issue new passports to have better control, but we outsource the printing to Thailand, where the Chinese intelligence are involved with the company printing them.  It's kind of dumb; we really need to have that imprint on our passports saying 'Made in China'."

March 28, 2008 entry by Patricia H. Kushlis at www.whirledview.typepad.com

"....I like Thailand. It was a fascinating place to serve in the Foreign Service at the end of the Vietnam War. I also enjoy Ayutthaya, the country’s ancient capital where the plant in question, according to Gertz, is located. Ayutthaya’s temples are a favorite tourist destination about a two hour boat trip up river from Bangkok’s steaming center.  

Ayutthaya is also the same city where Hambali (Ridwan Isamuddin), the instigator of the 2002 Bali nightclub bombing and apparent member of Al Qaeda’s inner circle, was finally caught by a joint CIA-Thai security services team in 2003 after being on the lam since late 2001. The prize money – or pay-off - that went to the Thai for their efforts, according to Sidney Morning Herald reporter Ray Bonner shortly thereafter, was on the order of $10 million. I guess the US government, that time at least, outbid Osama Bin Laden - but think of the number of potential implications.  

Thailand also has a history of – well – forging documents, manufacturing fake antiques and copious narcotics smuggling and of police and security forces that too often look the other way. It has a simmering and lengthy Muslim insurgency in the country’s south near the border with Malaysia, and Thailand’s domestic politics fluctuate between unstable democracy and equally unstable military rule....

In my view, it is simply not in America’s national security interests to farm out the production of its citizens’ most precious documents to the lowest bidder. And the longer the supply chain and the more questionable the factory location the greater the security risk."

March 27, 2008 Blog posts on www.boingboing.net

“The State Department is making a profit on every passport ordered by a US citizen because it has outsourced printing to Asia, including a Thai company that has had had problems with Chinese espionage. Not only is this stupidity from an administration supposedly committed to keeping the USA safe, it may also be illegal since Congress requires such activities to be break-even rather than to profit from the citizens it supposedly serves.” 


Go go keeping jobs in America! 

Hahaha, Happy opposite day! I think our "government" needs a little time to double think this problem. 

“Do you really want (even blank) passports printed in another country? It will still make it easier for forgers over there to make fakes-- it's like you've done half the work for them.”  


Perhaps we should save money by printing our currency in Thailand? No? That would be stupid? Of course it would!! And so is the outsourcing of the production of high security documents with major national security implications to an overseas low bidder!!! 

I paid 180$ to get my passport to go to guatemala. and it went to this? This is probably the first time I have cried while looking at anything on the internet.  the thing is to me, it just sounds like guatemalan news. Like the united states is just another banana republic with polliticians scrambling to get into office so that they can sell governmental resources.  You know they sold the national guatemalan postal service to some rich texan guy. it was supposed to be something about fixing government debts, but most of it went to the president at the time. America is gonna be like that soon.  it's only a matter of time, and if you know anything about the downfall of guatemalan economy, I think you will be crying to.

NFFE Press Release

Citing Safety Concerns, Passport Workers Endorse Legislation to Manufacture Passports Domestically

Thursday, May 29, 2008


Contact: Colin Walle, NFFE Local 1998 President

Phone: (206) 808-5764

Washington, D.C. - The National Federation of Federal Employees (NFFE), the federal union representing Passport Agency workers, is endorsing H.R. 5752, a bill requiring that United States passports be manufactured in the United States. 

H.R. 5752 was introduced in the House of Representatives after Washington Times reporter Bill Gertz broke the story on March 26th that the Government Printing Office (GPO) had outsourced the manufacturing and assembly of the U.S. passport book cover, RFID chip, and antenna to a company operating in Europe and Thailand – and that the technology utilized in the passport chip had, according to that company, been stolen by the Chinese.  Making matters worse, according to the Times, there are concerns about instability in Thailand, where the government was installed by a military coup in 2006 and al Qaeda and other terrorists have launched attacks against the government.  


As a result of outsourcing of the passport book and chip, the production of critical passport components is now vulnerable to terrorists, criminals, or foreign espionage agents who may seek to obtain these parts to create counterfeit passports or to use that knowledge to alter or access valid U.S. passports. 


“The off-shoring of this critical government function is absolutely shocking,” said Colin Walle, President of NFFE Local 1998, a nationwide Passport local.  “We go to great lengths to ensure the integrity of the U.S. Passport.  It makes no sense at all to open a Pandora’s Box of safety concerns by manufacturing passport books and security features in foreign countries.”


Passage of HR 5752 would address these concerns by requiring that U.S. passports be manufactured domestically. 


“The employees we represent don’t make the actual passport books.  Our members adjudicate and process the passport applications,” explained Colin Walle, President of NFFE Local 1998, a nationwide Passport local. “Our members care very deeply about the integrity of the process and the integrity of the book itself.  We need to restore trust in the security of the U.S. passport by bringing the manufacturing of the entire document on U.S. soil.” 


Go to this webpage for more information: http://nffe1998.org/HR5752.htm.



Updated June 8, 2008